By Saul I. Gass
An Annotated Timeline of Operations learn: an off-the-cuff History recounts the evolution of Operations examine (OR) as a brand new technology - the technological know-how of determination making. coming up from the pressing operational problems with international battle II, the philosophy and method of OR has permeated the solution of choice difficulties in enterprise, undefined, and executive. The Timeline chronicles the historical past of OR within the kind of self-contained, expository entries. each one access offers a concise clarification of the occasions and other people lower than dialogue, and gives key resources the place additional correct info should be bought. furthermore, books and papers that experience prompted the advance of OR or helped to teach the 1st generations of OR teachers and practitioners are pointed out through the e-book. beginning in 1564 with seminal rules that shape the precursors of OR, the Timeline lines the major rules and occasions of OR via 2004.
The Timeline should still curiosity an individual considering OR - researchers, practitioners, lecturers, and, specifically, scholars - who desire to find out how OR got here into being. additional, the scope and expository form of the Timeline may still make it of price to the final reader drawn to the advance of technology and know-how within the final half the 20 th century.
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Extra info for An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research: An Informal History
Liapanov, a student of Pafnuty L. Chebyshev. A drawback to this result was the requirement of ﬁnite third moments. In 1920, without being aware of Liapanov’s 33 proof, the Finnish mathematician Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg began to investigate conditions that would ensure CLT to hold. Lindeberg’s published his proof of CLT using these conditions in 1922. His work ultimately led to the sufﬁcient condition that the normed tail sum of the variances tend to zero as n goes to inﬁnity. This Lindeberg condition was shown to be also necessary by William Feller in 1935.
Principal components are a sequence of uncorrelated linear combinations of the original measurements, each with a variance smaller than the previous one, that collectively preserve the total variation of the original measurements. Hotelling showed how these components can be found from the eigenvectors of the population covariance matrix. [“On lines and planes of closest ﬁt to systems of points in space,” Karl Pearson, Philosophical Magazine, B, 2, 1901, 559–572; “Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into principal components,” H.
Seneta, editors, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001] 1931 Quality control charts Walter A. Shewhart joined Western Electric Company in 1918 and was transferred to the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1925. He remained there until his retirement in 1956. In the early 1920s, work on control charts started at Western Electric as part of a company-wide view of quality assurance based on scientiﬁc principles. In addition to Shewhart, the quality assurance team included Harold F. Dodge, Thornton C. Fry, Edward C.